Boundary formation and mobilisation of Shia activism and militancy in Pakistan
Shahzeb Ali Rathore
Date of Issue2018-02-08
S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies
Literature on sectarian violence in Pakistan has given little attention to Shia activism and militancy. As such, this research fills this gap by shedding light on how a 'thick' Shia boundary was created in Pakistan, using Michele Lamont and Andreas Wimmer's works on boundary-formation. The thesis establishes that a 'thick' Shia boundary was created because of Pakistan's exclusionary policies, which included preference of Sunni doctrines and cooption of anti-Shia groups. The cause of Shia activism and militancy is a 'thick' sectarian boundary created due to the state's policies, while Iran's emergence as the 'protector' of the Shia community only enabled it. The research explains the move to violence of an antagonistic (Shia) entity using situationist approach of Philip Zimbardo and the Social Movement Theory. It is concluded that an inclusive system is necessary to prevent the formation of a 'thick' and antagonistic boundary in a multicultural, multi-ethnic, multiracial or multireligion populace.
DRNTU::Social sciences::Political science