達志通欲──朝鮮漢語譯官與十七至十九世紀的中朝關係 = Communicating likings and needs : Chinese interpreters of Chosŏn and Sino-Chosŏn relations, 1600-1900
Date of Issue2017
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
本論文旨在探討朝鮮漢語譯官在明末清初至甲午戰爭間的中國與朝鮮半島之間的歷史轉變過程，在使行禮儀、交涉溝通、文化交流活動中，如何擔當中朝兩國間的文化媒介。他們不但在既定的禮節及邊界問題上，代表朝鮮與中國朝廷交涉。而且他們交涉過程中一方面以他們能運用漢語與中國士人及官員交流，以掌握更直接的情報與新知識，從而擴大了朝鮮對世界的了解，不再限於北京使行見聞的認識。與此同時，朝鮮漢語譯官與中國士人有相當頻繁的接觸，無論是直接的對談還是文學創作，譯官都代表著朝鮮的文化和社會。兩地彼此間的互動中，中國士人通過譯官作為媒介，認識朝鮮的社會。本論文透過中朝文人書寫與官方史料，探討漢語譯官在中朝關係中擔任的崗位、參與的交涉、與中國士人的酬唱等，說明他們如何在 17 至 19 世紀中朝關係中被視為交流的文化媒介，且探討他們的活動如何建構與士大夫不一樣的世界觀，改變兩國的關係以及文化交流互動的結果，並藉此提出「東亞世界網絡」的想法。 This research attempts to investigate the importance of Chinese interpreters of Chosŏn in the China-Chosŏn cultural relations from 1700 to 1900. Arguing those interpreters as intermediaries, this study looks at their responsibilities for negotiating tributary rituals and border disputes with the Chinese Court, learning new knowledge of the outside world, and bridging relations with Chinese officers and academe by utilizing their Chinese communication skills and literatures. Not only were these duties enrich and enlighten the Chosŏn Court and intellectuals, they were also representing Chosŏn cultures and rituals. Put in this light, this article is to begin with analyzing both Ming/Qing China and Chosŏn intellectuals’ writings and official records. Thereafter the focus would be to examine the Chosŏn interpreters’ significance in China-Chosŏn cultural relations and bringing modernized values into their territory. This would bring in the argument that the Chosŏn interpreters’ efforts were essential to the China-Chosŏn tributary relations during the period discussed as well as identifying the thought of “East Asian World Network”.