Comparative cost analysis of fuel cell and battery powered public bus
Fung, Joelle Yu Hui
Date of Issue2017-05-19
School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
Alternative powertrains such as battery and fuel cell technology have the potential to help fight climate change. The Singapore government is considering alternative powertrains in vehicles to achieve the goal of 36% reduction in Emissions Intensity from 2005 levels by 2030. The Singapore public bus fleet is currently largely powered by diesel fuel and the country has one of the densest public bus networks globally, with almost 4,600 buses operating daily in the city state. It may therefore be beneficial to consider alternative powertrains in Singapore public buses. This study evaluates the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of alternative powertrain technology to understand better how feasible it is to use battery and fuel cell to power the Singapore public bus fleet. The TCO of alternative powertrain technology was compared based on the power requirements of the 179 bus route. Important costs such as capital costs, maintenance costs, fuel costs and social costs of each alternative powertrain technology were included and compiled from past studies and market cost estimates. From the comparison of TCO of alternative powertrain technology, the Compressed Natural Gas Bus had the lowest TCO followed by the Battery Electric Bus. The Battery Electric Bus had a 0.94 times lower TCO than the typical Internal Combustion Diesel Bus due to its low emission levels and the decreasing price of lithium ion batteries. Fuel Cell Electric Buses had a higher TCO than Diesel Buses by 1.19 times. This is due to the present high costs and low lifetime of fuel cell stacks. Nonetheless, current market trends indicate the decreasing cost of battery and fuel cell technology. The study concludes that the Battery Electric Bus is the most suitable alternative powertrain for the 179 route.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University