新两线旧局限：马国民主行动党与马来政党关系变迁 = Rising two-coalition system with past constraints: the history of relationships between Democratic Action Party (DAP) and Malay political parties in Malaysia
Date of Issue2017-03-20
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
2008年的“308海啸”以后，政治反对势力的结盟在国内普遍受到重视，也被认为将是接下来的选举趋势与常态。本文以民主行动党为对象，自80年代末开展的两线政治风潮至2016年的后安华时代，探讨族群政治背景下，民行党与其它马来政党对垒、合作或竞争的互动关系。在不利的外部政治环境下，民行党多次联合其它马来反对势力对垒国阵。反对势力的结盟仍旧以族群/宗教为基础，面对内部分歧，民行党需要暂时达成协商与合作，也要顾及原则底线的坚持。在族群、宗教课题上的无法妥协让合作关系异常脆弱，有时也成为国阵击倒对手的筹码。另外，2013年全国大选后，如何突破华族政党形象获取多种族的支持，成为民主行动党发展的侧重点，但数次补选的失利均显示“马来化路线”效果不彰。如今的后安华时代，国阵与对手仍然热衷在族群与宗教课题上竞争，民行党作为华人政治反对力量更向马来人靠拢，让马国的政治力量呈现一种倒退的状态。A two-coalition system is now a reality for Malaysia's political landscape. Ever since the '308 political tsunami', which United Malays National Organization(UMNO) lost five of its state legislatures and its supermajority in parliament to opposition party during the Malaysia's 12th general elections in 2008, public aspiration and expectations for the opposition political coalition, Pakatan Rakyat(PR), were a record high. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between Democratic Action Party(DAP) and Malay political parties from the late 80s till Post-Anwar era in 2016 where ethnicity and religion still hold crucial roles in determining Malaysia's general election outcomes. Since 1990, DAP has formed Malaysian opposition coalitions with other Malay political parties several times. The attempted coalitions, however, are dismissed eventually. DAP and other Malay parties, often the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), were unwilling to set aside their differences, which attributed greatly to the dismissal of coalitions. With evidence of strong support from non-Malay voters in the 13th general election, DAP started to adjust its campaign strategies to garner more support from Malay communities in the semi-urban and rural constituencies. In the post-Anwar period, both coalitions, especially UMNO and PAS, employ ethnicity and religious topics in their campaigns to comply to their political agendas. As DAP, a non-Malay opposition party started to be more Malay-centric, Malaysia's political landscape might be taking a turn for the worse.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University