会话分析研究 ：“就”作为回应开头单位的互动会话功能 = Conversation Analysis : “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response in Mandarin conversation
林美琦 Lim, Maggie Meiqi
Date of Issue2017
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
在日常会话中，我们有各种各样回应话语的方式。比如在英语会话中我们常常听到他人以“oh”或“well”作为开头回应某个问题。在汉语会话当中我们也常听过他人以“其实”，“事实上”等语言单位作为回应某个话语的开头。这些语言单位作为回应的开头可被称为“回应开头单位”（turn-initial object of a response）。会话分析（Conversation Analysis）相信，回应开头单位在人与人的交际当中扮演了重要的角色，拥有其特定的互动会话功能（communicative function）。本论文将以会话分析的方法探讨“就”作为回应开头单位的互动会话功能。从收集到的语料当中，笔者发现“就”作为回应开头单位在汉语会话（Mandarin conversation）中的出现频率频繁，可算是一种会话常规（conversation practice）。因此“就”作为回应开头单位，必定有其特定功能，值得我们去探究。笔者主张，回应者可通过“就”回应开头单位来表达自己对所回应的话语有所异议（deemed it as problematic）。这是其大体上来说（in general）的互动会话功能。若按照“就”回应开头单位能够出现的不同序列语境（sequential environment），我们可以将其互动会话功能细分成较为具体的功能。从语料中笔者发现，“就”作为回应开头单位出现在三种序列语境下，因此“就”作为回应开头单位可细分出三种具体的互动会话功能：1）回应者可通过“就”回应开头单位来表达对所回应话语的不接受； 2）回应者可通过“就”回应开头单位来“抵御”（resist）所回应话语中的隐含意图（implied agenda）；3）回应者可通过“就”回应开头单位来标记所回应问题不证自明的性质。最后，本论文也将以“面子理论”（Face Theory）探讨“就”作为回应开头单位的运用，并且从此的运用中证明人们在交际时对社会和谐的考虑与重视。In Conversation Analysis, we argue that the turn-initial object of a response can often have its own communicative function – it has been proven through extensive research that respondents do make use of these small objects to express their stance or attitude towards the prior turn. For example, in English conversation respondent use “oh” as a turn-initial object of a response towards a question to express that the question is unexpected. Other researches on the communicative function of a turn-initial object of a response also include: the use of “ani” in Korean conversation, the use of “qishi” in Mandarin conversation and more. In this study, I argued that “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response in Mandarin conversation is generally used by respondent to express that the prior turn is problematic. In different sequential environment, “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response can have its particularized function as well. These includes: 1) respondent can use “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response to express rejection towards the utterance in the prior turn; 2) respondent can use “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response to express resistance towards the implied agenda of an utterance in the prior turn; 3) respondent can use “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response to index the prior turn as self-evident. Lastly, I will also make use of Face Theory from Brown and Levinson to discuss the deployment of “jiu” as a turn-initial object of a response and what it could reflect about the social interaction between people.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University