佛教瑜伽焰口施食仪式探讨 = An exploration of buddhist rites based upon the Yogacara Ulka-mukha Dharma service
Pang, Yew Cheng
Date of Issue2017-03-15
College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences
竹林寺Zu-Lin Temple Association
“吃斋坐禅、烧香拜佛、阿弥陀佛、观音菩萨、色即是空、悟空八戒”这些似乎是本地人对于佛教的普遍认知概念。但佛教作为一种宗教信仰其实是心灵的粮食、苦难的支撑、死亡的依归，有着十分丰富的一面等待世人去发掘。而这当中又以蕴含经忏、科仪的各种佛事法会更能彰显佛法所蕴含的教育功能、慈悲教义、文化形态。 在本地众多汉传佛寺、庵堂中，全年所筹办的各种法会众多，但最常启建的应该是瑜伽焰口法会。因为该法会既可单独启建又可配合其他法会同步协办，更重要的是当中所承载的是自利、他利的广大宏愿。 “焰口”故名思义，就是有火焰烧灼的口。撇开为了生计需要吞火的魔术师以外，常人应该不想忍受或尝试，这种口腔被烧烤的滋味。但在佛道两家的宇宙观中，却存在着有情众生或俗称“鬼魅”终日在幽冥地狱中受尽烈火烧蚀口腔、食道的剧苦。因为此缘故，这群“焰口”无法享用任何的人间祭品，常年处于饥寒交迫的饿鬼状态。 在这种大背景下，中国本土的道教与源自天竺后传东土的佛教，两家都各自创立了一套施食方法，试图拯救这类饿鬼。虽说，佛道有别，但基于创建仪轨的理念、地域相似的缘故、背后繁琐礼节，两家所研究发明的法会仪轨及相关事项，对于凡俗弟子而言可谓高深难解，更有重叠的迹象。 有鉴于此，本文将以新加坡佛教及本土法会为研讨方向，着重探析本地汉传佛教中所盛行的瑜伽焰口法会，并梳理当中的典籍由来、法会前后流程、仪轨文本内部多重含义、演法意图，由此勾勒出本地焰口法会的特点。 关键词： 佛教科仪、典籍仪式、瑜伽焰口、法会流程、文化传承 “Vegetarian, Zen, Prayers, Buddha, Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and emptiness” – These are probably the most common connotations locals relates to regarding Buddhism. However, serving as a nourishment for the soul, pillar of strength in times of crisis and most importantly a refuge for death, Buddhism offers a myriad of facets waiting for mankind to uncover. Amongst which, Dharma services which involves rituals such as the recitation of sutras, prostrating in repentance, best projects the core beliefs of Buddhism. In the world of Dharma services performed by local Monasteries and Temples, the Yogacara Ulka-mukha ritual is the most frequent and popular Dharma service. This is a ritual that can be performed in conjunction with other complicated Dharma services or executed independently as the main rite for a Dharma service itself. Moreover, this ritual encompasses the values of benevolence and methodology towards benefiting oneself and others. “Ulka-mukha”otherwise known as a Flaming mouth, is a Ghost, whose mouth is constantly being charred by flames. Other than magicians who earns a living by performing acts of swallowing fire, there would definitely be no man who wish to experience this feeling. “Ulka-mukha” is a species of “Perta” or Hungry Ghost that exists in the Netherworld. The constant formidable flame in the mouth and throat of the “Ulka-mukha”, forbids them from consuming any sacrificial offerings made to the ghost realm, reducing them to the state of hunger throughout the year. With such an understanding in mind, both Taoist which is an ingenious religion of China and Buddhism which is stemmed off from India, each established a unique yet similar, set of ritual aimed at feeding and liberation of the Flaming Mouths. However, the complexity of such rituals proved tough for laymen to comprehend. In view of the above mentioned, this thesis will be attributed to the study of Singapore’s Buddhism and it’s Dharma services, through the scope of Yogacara Ulka-mukha Ritual. Thereby elucidating on the origins; historical Sutra records; Ritual’s aims, preparation process and procedures; Sutra’s contents, which will aid in identifying the unique characteristics hidden in the local Yogacara Ulka-mukha Dharma Service scene. Keywords: Dharma Services, Yogacara Ulka-mukha, Rites, Sutra, Culture.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University