「上承帝令，下佑群⽣」 新加坡朱、邢、李⼤⼈信仰 「神⼈关系」模式之研究 = The study of divinity models of the cult of Zhu, Xing & Li royal lords in Singapore
林科宏 Lim, Ke Hong
Date of Issue2016
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
自 19 世纪末,20 世纪初以来,“朱、邢、李三王府大人”信仰便跟随着 过藩南来的闽籍华族先辈,被大量“移植”到了新加坡,且大部分都聚落在早 期所谓的“山顶”村落郊区。其中,该信仰亦经历各种在地化过程,与岛国不 同地方和类型的信徒确立起多套“神——人”交流及互动之形式。换句话说, 三位大人与各别信徒、群体之间的“神人关系”实则建构于不同的模式概念之 上,而最为主要者,莫过于“个人模式”及“官僚模式”两种。若要进一步探 讨这些模式如何带动不同信徒,甚至某群体与神祇之间的沟通和关系建构,则 必然得着眼于该信仰所具有的各项仪式实践抑或法事内容。本论文将对新加坡 朱、邢、李大人信仰及其早期坐落于本地“山顶”范围的三间庙宇——宏茂桥 檺林宫、龙霞舘,以及中亭庙,展开田野调查工作,观察与记录它们所定期举 行的仪式活动,包括扶乩、神诞庆典,以及道教法事科仪,从中思考信徒如何 通过不同的模式(“个人”、“官僚”,甚至其它)来对朱、邢、李大人进行 身份和功能上的诠释,并塑造出属于自己抑或“我群”、“我族”的“神人关 系”。进言之,论文第三、第四,和第五章将分别对三庙的仪式和符号象征意 义进行分析,且在这些基础上,凸显出各庙信徒与三神之间所建构和维持着的 不同关系模式,及其背后所反映的各种“地缘”及“人缘”因素。而必须指出, 本研究不仅是对于新加坡朱、邢、李大人信仰的一次重点论述,更是希望提炼 出一套系统性的方法抑或视角,以有效看待本地华人/闽南民间宗教信仰生态 及语境。 During the late 19th and early 20th century, large crowds of migrants from Min- nan swam into Singapore, which was then a British colony, it was also during the same period, when the cults of Zhu, Xing & Li royal lords were spread to this land. Most of the temples of this particular cult were located in the then rural areas (called “Sua deng”, meaning “Kampong”), and as time passes, they experienced the process of localization, adjusting to the surrounding environment, and developed several modes of interactions with different groups of devotees. In other words, Zhu, Xing & Li royal lords bonded and establish different types of god-devotee relationships (“guan xi” in Chinese) through different models of divinity. It is noted that among the many models, two are the most commonly seem and used, which are the “personal model” and the “bureaucratic model”. And if we were to take a more in-depth observation to these different models, it is best to look into the different rituals that occur within the many temples of the cult itself. This thesis focuses mainly on three temples of the cult of Zhu, Xing & Li royal lords in Singapore, namely Ang Mo Kio Gao Lin Temple, Loong Shia Kwung and Tiong Teng Beo. Although all of them share the same cult and were then situated in rural Kampongs, their devotees each adopted different models of divinity to establish interactions and understanding with the subject of worship. Thus, intensive fieldworks will be conducted in this three temples to observe and record the rituals and rites, such as medium spirit-trancing, celebrations/ festivals of the birthday of the gods, as well as the Taoist ceremonial rituals performed in the temples’ compound. Chapter 3, 4 and 5 of this thesis will analyze the meanings behind the rituals and symbols of the three temples respectively and will also examine the factors behind the choosing of a main model of divinity by each of the temples. It must be noted that this research is not just an intense study of the cult of Zhu, Xing & Li royal lords in Singapore, but also to be able to explore and come out with a more systematic approach and methodology to better observe the landscape and patterns of local Chinese/ Min-nan popular religion.