从第一个词汇至第一个句子 ： 新加坡儿童汉语-英语早期词汇发展之个案 = From the first word to the first sentence : a case study of a Singaporean infant's Chinese-English bilingual lexical development
潘霖妮 Puah, Lynn Dee
Date of Issue2016
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
本研究旨在深入了解新加坡双语儿童的语言发展及探讨适合新加坡华族儿童的家庭语言政策。本研究采取长期个案研究的方式，并以作者的女儿，LV 作为近距离观察的对象。LV 是出生于新加坡的华族女孩，父母亲皆采取以汉语为主的“一人二语”制的家庭语言政策。数据收集包括 479 个单词词条记录、123 个语言日记及 22 小时 38 分钟 43 秒的录像转录。数据收集集中在 LV 平均句长达到 2 个词以前，同时也是新增累积多词少于新增累积词汇期间（0;09.17 年龄至 1;10.22 年龄）的汉语-英语词汇产出。数据分析的结果发现，LV 的早期词汇发展，有其规律性，但也存在个体差异。LV 的汉语词汇发展优于英语词汇发展。LV 在可避免的情况下，仍选择双语夹杂的表达方式。LV 的汉英两种词汇中，对等翻译的词汇产出不多。另外，LV 的汉语和英语词汇中，皆以名词为主要习得词汇，但汉语动词多于英语动词。总结本研究所得到的结果，我们感到儿童早期的词汇发展，受到内部知觉（perception）与认知（cognition）等的限制，也受到外部社会文化与语言输入等的影响，家庭语言政策应该按家庭以外的语言环境输入条件适时调整。往后应该深入分析儿童的语言输入，以及进行更多来自不同背景的个案研究，探讨新加坡儿童的双语能力如何在动态中维持平衡。 The present study aims to have a deeper understanding of Singapore children bilingual development and to discuss the family language policy that is suitable for Singapore Chinese children. This study carried out a longitudinal case study to closely observe the language development in the author's daughter, LV. LV is an ethnic Chinese girl born in Singapore. Both parents follow a 1P2L (one person two languages) family language policy, with Chinese as the dominant language. The data collected include 479 records of LV's productive lexicons, 123 entries in the language diary and transcriptions of 22 hours, 28 minutes and 43 seconds of video recordings. Data collection focused on LV’s Chinese and English productive lexicons before her mean length of utterance (MLU) reached two words, with accumulative new combinations less than accumulative new words (aged 0;09.17 to 1;10.22). The results show that, there was regularity in LV's early lexical development, with individual difference. LV produced more Chinese words than the English ones. LV tended to produce mixed utterances, even when they were avoidable. LV did not produce many translated equivalents. Besides, LV acquired more nouns than verbs in both Chinese and English, However, the production of Chinese verbs outnumbered the English ones. In reviewing the results of this study, we can see that, besides internal factors such as perception and cognition, children's early lexical development depends highly on external factors such as socioculture and language input. Family language policy needs to be adjusted according to the changes of language input condition outside family. Analyses on language input and further case studies of children with different family backgrounds are needed in the future, so as to find out how Singapore bilingual children can maintain the balancing of both languages in a dynamic pace.