范晔《后汉书》选录文章研究 = A study of literary works selected by Fan Ye’s book of the Eastern Han
Date of Issue2016
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
范晔《后汉书》作为前四史之一，除了富有很高的史学价值外，同时富有很高的文学价值，很多东汉的文章都赖以保全。本文以范晔《后汉书》中所选录的文章（以文为主，兼以诗赋）为基础，探讨东汉文学的变迁。第一章按照文体不同，将范晔《后汉书》所选录的文章分类总结，发现散文中语言越来越重视彰显文采，表现情志，而韵文也多与政事、时事挂钩，体现出比较强烈的应用文的功用，可见东汉仍然是以文章的实用性作为首要目的。另一方面，自和帝起，宦戚之争日趋激烈，使得深受其害的文人不得不做出选择，一则慷慨激昂，针砭时弊，一则远离朝局，怡然自得。范晔《后汉书》首次于正史之中设立《文苑传》，意义十分深远，但诸如班固、张衡、孔融等文人却未被收录，难免给人以《文苑传》中不录一流作家的误解。第二章便以《文苑传》传主为研究对象，将这些文人按其成就分为四类，并分析其中如杜笃、赵壹、傅毅、郦炎、崔琦、祢衡等一流文章家在《文苑传》中的作品、传记，说明他们在文学史上的杰出成就。第三章着眼于《文苑传》以外的杰出文章家，分为从班固到张衡、从王符到仲长统、从蔡邕到孔融三条线索，通过前两条线索讨论在东汉由盛至衰的变迁下，文章的嬗变，兼及范晔《后汉书》选录文章的标准，最后一条线索主要讨论东汉末期文章的发展，可以看出“慷慨以任气，磊落以使才”的文学风格在“建安风骨”之前就已初现端倪。第四章以解构建安七子为引线，从建安风骨与建安文学之间关系展开讨论，继而讨论文学史上多层次的遮蔽与错位现象，并对文学自觉说提出自己的看法，即文学自觉是一个过程，从而得出东汉文学是从汉代醇厚到魏晋壮节之间不可缺少的重要一环，而非西汉文学之附庸。As one of the Early Four Historiographies, which well-preserved lots of literary works, Fan Ye’s Book of the Eastern Han not only has a great historical value, but also has a great literary value. Based on the study of literary works (mainly prose, and extend to rhapsody and poetry) selected by Fan Ye, this thesis aims to discuss the literature development during the Eastern Han dynasty. First chapter studies the literary works selected by Fan Ye according to different genres. It finds out that during Eastern Han dynasty, proses and rhymes were closely related, more rhetorical and lexical skills were used in composing proses with personal feeling, while rhymes were most likely related to political issues. From the succession of Emperor He onwards, subsequent reigns were increasingly marked by eunuch intervention in court politics and their involvement in the violent power struggles of the imperial consort clans. Scholars had to choose either staying in the court - their literary works became more vigorous, or leaving the court - their literary works became more speculative. It is a remarkable breakthrough that Fan Ye introduced “Biographies of Writers” in the historiography, yet many famous litterateurs such as Ban Gu, Zhang Heng, Kong Rong, etc. were not in this biography, which left us an impression that those litterateurs in “Biographies of Writers” were noteless. Chapter two categorizes the litterateurs in “Biographies of Writers” into four groups, and focuses on first-class litterateurs, such as DU Du, ZHAO Yi, FU Yi, LI Yan, CUI Qi, MI Heng, etc., to discuss their great contributions to the literature. On the other hand, chapter three focuses on three pairs of famous litterateurs who are not selected in “Biographies of Writers”, BAN Gu and ZHANG Heng, WANG Fu and ZHONG Changtong, CAI Yong and KONG Rong. Through the studies on first two pairs of litterateurs, the chapter aims to discuss the literature transition during the Eastern Han dynasty, as well as Fan Ye’s preferences of selecting literary works. While the last pair of litterateurs CAI Yong and KONG Rong, shows the inkling of “the vigorous and powerful style of Jian'an literature” was found earlier than the Jian'an Period. Chapter four starts with the deconstruction of the term “Seven Scholars of Jian'an”, followed by the discussion of the relationship between “Jian'an Fenggu” and “Jian'an Literature”, thus to discuss about the “Concealment” and “Dislocation” phenomenon in literature studies. Last but not least, together with the discussion on the time literature entered conscientious era, shows that the literature of the Eastern Han has an irreplaceable and unique value during the transition period from Han to WeiJin.