从勒菲弗尔三要素理论理解翻译者的文化背景和目标读者的文化影响翻译 : 以比较两本《论语》的英译本為例 = Understanding translator’s cultural background and receiving culture affects translation from the perspective of Lefebvre’s three-factor theory : a comparative study of two English-translated analects works
Date of Issue2016-03-17
College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences
Manipulation theory, which arose in 1990s, is a representative of the cultural change in western translation study world. It mainly explores the cultural background in which translation is produced and the influences that translated work brings to the receiving culture. André Lefevere, as the initiator of this theory, contributes a lot to the formulation and improvement of the study of translational manipulation theory. He proposes that translation is rewriting and manipulation in essence and further generalized three key factors which govern and manipulate one’s translation: ideology, poetics and patronage. In the present thesis, Andre Lefevere's Three-Factor Theory is applied to the comparative study of two English versions of the great Chinese classic the Analects respectively by Ku Hung Ming and Ezra Pound. Through the comparative study of two translations, the author attempts to reveal the three manipulative forces embodied specifically in each version and the most affective force in each translation. Based on the study, it is drawn that Ku Hung Ming and Ezra Pound were manipulated respectively by the three affecting factors (ideology, poetics and patronage) when they were doing the translation of the Analects. In terms of the impact of ideology, under the influences of the social dominant ideology of the original text in the Late-Qin Period, Ku Hung Ming determined to translate the Analects and introduce the Confucian thoughts to the West with the purpose of changing the Western glitterati’s attitude to Chinese culture and saving the declining China in cultural level; Influenced by the chaotic world order caused by the world wars and financial depression at the first half of 20th century, Pound chose to translate the Analects in the hope of seeking the cure to eradicate the ills deeply rooted in the Capital Civilization from the Confucianism in the East. In terms of the impact of poetics, influenced by the literary function (Moral Enlightenment) in the target language in the Victorian Age, Ku Kung Ming chose to translate The Analects and his translation corresponds with the literary criterion in the receiving culture; However, Pound’s translation is concise and rich in poetic and pictorial splendor due to the manipulation of the poetics of the Imagism Movement he actively pioneered. In terms of the impact of patronage, the two rewriters were relatively free from the constraints of patronage，however the receiving culture have affected their translations. Without wanting to reach targeted audience, they have to translate their work for the intended audience to understand. The two translations were mainly manipulated by different ideologies and poetics in the different periods and have different features. This shows that translators are always affected and manipulated by the cultural background of that period. Among the three factors, ideology is most influential to Ku Hung Ming’s translation whereas poetics exerts the greatest impact on Pond’s translation. Influenced by his ideology, Ku Hung Ming formed his own translation purpose: changing the Western intellectuals’ attitudes to Chinese culture and saving the declining China in cultural level. In order to get Western readers understand Confucian thoughts expressed in The Analects, he adopted the strategy of Domestication” and used unique ways of dealing with “Universe of Discourse” such as the deletion of Chinese Proper names and a lot of quotations from famous European writers. Under the influences of his ideology, Pond adopted the translation strategy of “Foreignization” in order to catch the essence of the Confucianism in the original text. However, the factor of Poetics is the most important force manipulating Pond’s translation. Following the three Imagist poetic principles in writing, he adopted succinct sentence patterns and a diagrammatic method to render Chinese characters, creating a vivid image for English readers. Therefore, his translation is quite like a poem, characteristic with visual image and brevity. Both Ku Hung Ming and Pond creatively translated The Analects. Having been manipulated by different ideologies and poetics in the different periods, their translations are distinct in style with sharp epochal feature. This thesis further corroborates Lefevere’s Manipulation Theory and in the meantime, it provides a theoretical and practical basis for the literature translation criticism in the future.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University