以「心法」論林兆恩的「世間法」與「出世間法」 = “Xin Fa” as a mean of bridging “Shijian Fa” and “Chushijian Fa”
Ang, Wei Yang
Date of Issue2016-03-15
College of Humanities, Arts, and Social Sciences
Lin Chao-en is the founder of “Sanyi Jiao” (三一教) in late Ming dynasty. He inherited the philosophy of the “syncretism of the three teaching” (三教合一) from the preceding thinkers and systemized it to develop an unique system of thoughts and practice. In some sense, he can be regarded as the master of the “syncretism of the three teaching” philosophy. “Syncretism of the three teaching” basically advocates the synthesis of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Different thinker has different approach when dealing with “syncretism of the three teaching.” The three main approaches are: “Tiaohe” (調和), “Huitong” (會通) and “Heyi” (合一). And the definition of these terms are still greatly argued among modern scholars. However, it is agreeable that there is a certain degree of synthesis in the three different approaches, in which, “Heyi” is definitely the highest form of “synthesis.” It is interesting to note that there are vast differences between Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. One obvious difference is the conflict between “Jingshi” and “Chushi.” Generally, scholars would use this dichotomy and segregate the teaching of Confucianism as “Jingshi” and the teaching of Buddhism and Taoism as “Chushi.” They are regarded as opposing and conflicting and there is no way to work both at the same time. Since Lin Chao-en advocates the “syncretism of the three teaching,” he must therefore resolve the conflict of the two. Lin Chao-en inherited the Ming dynasty’s “Xinxue” (心學) and developed the “Xinfa” (心法) of “Sanyi Jiao” and used it to redefine “Jingshi” and “Chushi.” Furthermore, he used “Xin” (心) as a mean to bridge the segregation between “Jingshi” and “Chushi” as well as to rationalize the teaching of “Sanyi Jiao.” He also developed a practice (工夫) to bring his theory into practice. This paper will focus on Lin Chao-en’s “Xinfa” and discuss how it bridges the gap between “Jingshi” and “Chushi,” and finally discuss how it is expressed in his practice.
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University