本土的现实主义 ：马来西亚砂拉越吴岸的文学理念与作品研究 = Local realism : a study of Malaysia Sarawak poet Wu An's literary ideas and works
谢征达 Seah, Cheng Ta
Date of Issue2014
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
属马来西亚一洲的砂拉越在历史、地理、族群、文化、文学主题等都与作为中央的马来半岛有着迥然不同的自身发展。本论文将砂拉越华文文学（砂华文学）从国家文学的概念中抽离，透过吴岸作品观察砂华文学的定位，以一个“自成体系”的文学主体视角进行检视。吴岸从1962年《盾上的诗篇》便开始其半个世纪的创作，在砂华文学担任先锋者的角色。现实主义与本土性在吴岸文学作品中是两大无法忽视的文学特色。本研究将其独特性以“权力”、“真相”与“主体”来剖析，进而思考吴岸创作与社会及家国等互动面向。对吴岸而言，本土即是砂拉越，其本土书写集中在土地（砂拉越）与个人的回忆与经历。论文也针对吴岸书写中的他者进行搜索与界定，冀望以这些相互交流模式，拓展本土性的讨论。他者的申论有三点：一、作为移民第三代，吴岸对于中国的想象建立在文化与历史的吸收上，是位“想象的回归者”。二、由于西马与东马的关系密度浓郁，吴岸对西马的高度关注使其成了一位“紧密的观察者”。三、在其他地区，吴岸的态度从宏观视维出发，属“轻松旅者”姿态。整体而言，论文核心以吴岸作为砂华文学底下的个体，从本土出发，以书写的独特性展示砂华文学的自主文学场域的可能性。吴岸创作中的本土与现实主义融合并促成思想与空间的交织，形成土地与世界两面维度的接轨，展示具“本土世界观点”的文学。 Sarawak, a state in Malaysia, consist numerous distinct characteristics (history, ethnic, culture, literature etc.) in comparison to the Malay Peninsula across the South China Sea. This thesis attempts to displace Sarawak Chinese literature from nation framework; instead, it will be reviewed from a literature field perspective. In 1962, Wu An (吴岸) published his first anthology “ A Poem on the Shield” (盾上的诗篇) and has since been active in the literature field for more than half a century as a pioneer poet in Sarawak. Realism and localization are two crucial traits of Wu An’s literary works. The uniqueness in his work will be examined in three aspects, namely “power”, “truth”, and “object”. From Wu An’s point of view, his local writing is based on Sarawak. His poems focus on the land he stays (Sarawak) and his personal memories and experiences there. Apart from local writings, interactions between “other” and “local” provide wider horizon on the topic of localization. Firstly, as a third generation descendent from China, Wu An’s understanding on China is mainly through the teachings of Chinese Culture and History, thus an “imagined returnee”. Secondly, Wu An’s poem demonstrates an intense concern on the happenings in Malay Peninsula, which makes him a “close observer”. Thirdly, where his works about other areas are concerned, Wu An holds a more distant stance, and hence, he is a “casual tourist”. Wu An’s realistic local writings has establish local discourse inrelations to national and global manifestations through various contact zones.