空间的包含：庄子〈逍遥游〉“游”义 之探析 = The perspective of space: the philosophy of “you” in Zhuang Zi Xiao Yao You.
Tung, Crystal Kwai Jie.
Date of Issue2012
School of Humanities and Social Sciences
The term „You‟ is not coined by Zhuang Zi although the frequency of use is rather heavy compared to other texts recorded during the Pre-Qin. „You‟ consists of several layers of meanings. Previous researchers have defined it as a form of sightseeing, or „You Xin‟ which is a form of freedom. Others interpreted „You‟ as a form of liberation to reach a state of transcendence. „You‟is also seen as one being in harmony with the nature. In fact, the philosophy of „You‟ in Zhuang Zi comprises not just the literature sense but a questioning of life pertaining issues. Beside, the concept on „You Yu Yi’ was recorded within Lun Yu, which had prompted some researchers to define the „You‟ seen in Confucian as a form of personality development. Thus, the author will seek to investigate the difference in „You‟ in between Taoism and Confucian. Using the word „You‟ as a starting point in the search to define „You‟ to ascertain the various humanistic characteristics it entails and thereby defines it as an expression of the highest spiritual realm and the various humanistic characteristics that it displays. The author shall also explore the various dimensions of space that „You‟ expands into. If „You‟ exist in any dimension, what is the relationship between space and „You‟? How one should goes about understanding the significance of „You‟ in the perspective of space? The author shall analyze what degree in the realm does „You‟ lies in and seek to broaden it beyond it beyond the traditional meaning of „freedom‟. This paper will also seek to differentiate „You‟ from „Xiao Yao‟. “游”一并非只是字面上的意思而已，此字在《庄子》内篇出现的次数比起先秦的哲学古籍较为频繁。学者有不少学者已经针对“游”字做过了不少研究，有的将之释为“游历”、“游玩”、“游说”，也有的释为“游心”，即表示一种精神自由的状态，是与万物合而为一的。此外，也有学者提出超越性的“游”，其目的是通过体“道”来实现心灵的解放，达到绝对自由的精神状态，这是一个物我为一、与道合一的境界，它必须通过心斋、坐忘的修养功夫来实现自我的超越。另一种则是使精神心灵在有限的现实世界中体认天地万物的本然生命，达到与天地万物融为一体的生存境界。而庄子之“游”的本意不仅涉及到文学美感，也揭入了一些有关人性义理的问题。而本文将会结合“空间”的概念对“游”进行揭示，并将之与孔子“游于艺”做比对。 本文将以 “游”所展现的心灵意境和相关的功夫论进行开展，加以解释“游”的意境到底能够拓展出怎样的空间感。若“游”存在于某个空间层次，那空间与“游”有着什么样的接连，还有应该如何去把握“游”之空间此含义。笔者将进而析探这空间究竟是何等的意境。
Final Year Project (FYP)
Nanyang Technological University