Civil-military relations in Indonesia : a critical evaluation of military reforms
Gan, Eng Leong
Date of Issue2011
S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies
Through its history, the Indonesian Armed Forces (referred to as Tentara Nasional Indonesia, or TNI) has evolved a sophisticated doctrine to justify its socio-political involvement. Its involvement peaked under the doctrine of dwifungsi, which recognised the military's conventional role in national defence as well as an equally important role as arbiter of the country's socio-political affairs. Under President Suharto's tutelage, the military emerged as the most dominant institution in Indonesia, removing civilians from any meaningful decision-making authority and enabled the military to exert significant political, social and economic influence.
DRNTU::Social sciences::Military and naval science
Nanyang Technological University