Diagnostic tool for detection of cancer
Ooi, Chui Ping.
Date of Issue2008
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering
Cancer is a class of disease or disorders. Basically, it is categorized into three main types; carcinoma (epithelial cancer), sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues or muscle cells), and leukemia (cancer of hemopoietic cells). Most of cancers originate from abnormal cells that divide without control. It begins with a genetic defect resulting in mutagens that create abnormal cells. Subsequently, cancerous growth occurs due to defective control of cell death and proliferation. At the end, metastasis – a state whereby cancer cells can invade nearby tissues and can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body – takes place as a weapon for mass destruction. Many studies have been made over the past several decades in elucidating the genetic and biochemical changes that underline the development of cancer. One of the objectives for such research is that having better understanding of causes of cancer will lead to improved strategies for cancer diagnosis, thereby prevent cancer fatalities. The current screening approaches include; biopsy (process of removing a piece of tissue for microscopic examination), optical imaging, ultrasonography (diagnosis process using ultrasound, for example MRI), and blood test (examination of abnormalities in level of hormone, metabolites, nucleosides, and proteins) have shown a potential diagnosis capability to detect cancer.